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For this nutrition edition of the Community Conversation, Prototype Nutrition Coach Jon Collette and Prototype Nutrition’s Registered Dietitian, Sam Russo will be discussing why undereating can affect your goals. If you’re looking to learn more about nutrition for yourself or pick up some good eating habit tips, you will want to check this out!
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Thank you for tuning in to the community conversation brought to you by Prototype Training Systems, home of CrossFit Prototype. In the community conversation, we typically highlight a different member of the Prototype community. Today, we’re going to be doing it nutrition edition of the community conversation where we hope to provide you guys with some nutrition education. If you’re new to the prototype community, I am coach Jon, and this is coach Sam, and we run the nutrition program here prototype. There’s a lot of misinformation on nutrition, we aim to provide you guys with some clarity. Today, the topic that we’re going to be talking about is how eating too little can impact your goals.
Awesome. So Jon, what do you mean by eating too little,
or eating too little can refer to a number of different things, it can be eating too few too few meals, too few calories, it could be just consuming nutrition, I guess. And all over the place, whether it’s different amounts on the weekends, and during the week. So eating too little, in the sense of, I guess your overall daily average calorie intake.
It’s just too low. A lot of things that we’re going to talk about right now.
So I’m just like maybe paint a picture for some of you guys, this is maybe this might sound really familiar is how eating too little in the sense that okay, the goal might be, I want to gain muscle or I want to lose weight. But in order to do that, we put like certain foods on pedestals that we think are more practical to get us to that goal faster. So eating too little could be for breakfast, we wake up, and we have a protein shake. And then we don’t eat for several hours. And then for lunch, we have a salad with some chicken on it. Something that we consider very nutritious. And then for dinner, maybe we have like normal, like protein, carb and vegetable. If we look at that, was it for what it is it looks like a pretty decent food choices. But if we start to think about Okay, well, as nutritious as some of these things are, that could be very low calorie. And if we do that for a few days in a row, I guess what can possibly happen is that we’re eventually going to adjust our body’s going to adapt to doing that. And it’s going to give you some feedback as to eat more or on the weekends when we have access to some really palatable foods, it might that might lead to us indulging a little bit more than we’d anticipate doing to begin with. So I’m sim eating too little in the sense that how does it like what does that mean? If Okay, I want to lose weight. But how can how does that even make any sense? I want to lose weight, but eating too little is not the solution, like what is the solution.
So obviously, weight loss comes from eating in a calorie deficit. And a lot of times we’ll like put our clients on the the body scanner, the body scan and they’ll get a nice little printout of like the amount of muscle and their body fat, water and total body weight. And then from there, we can kind of calculate BMR. And BMR is like what the body burns at rest basal metabolic rate. So the BMR is a portion of the calories someone burns in a day. And so for someone to lose weight, we take the BMR, we take the amount of calories that they burned during exercise, we take the amount of calories that they burn, just like living them eating, drinking, brushing their teeth, whatever it might be. And then we take the thermic effect of food and we put them all together. And when you calculate all that out back at you like maintenance calories, like what someone needs to eat to stay in maintenance base, no weight gain or weight loss, no muscle gain, no muscle loss. And so to lose weight, then they’re going to be eating in a calorie deficit. And there is such a thing as being in too low calories and too much of a calorie deficit. And so I think what you’re talking about here is that like that calorie deficit is just too great. And when that happens, then we see either the body adjusting so BMR tracks lower if you’re eating too little, or what we see I think more frequently is that someone will eat really low calorie during the week and then the weekend rolls around and it’s really hard to control themselves around food, which in the end ends up leading to more weight gain because though they’re eating, quote unquote healthy during the week, the weekends turned into one big cheat
day. Almost thermostat like yeah, like If you’re setting the setpoint to 70 degrees, but things are getting too low eventually that that heats gonna kick on. Or vice versa. If you, if it gets really hot in your house, the AC is gonna kick on and it’s gonna kind of like, it’s gonna try to keep you out like a pretty decent like, setpoint.
Yeah, our bodies are amazing. They know how to do things on their own. And sometimes we find it and we do the wrong things, thinking that they’re the right things, and eating too little is definitely definitely one of them. Um, john, do you want to dive into like, what actually happens when someone’s eating too little
question though, just so like about the BMR. Just because I think you guys should do an in body scan if you haven’t, but BMR. Sam, is it like 100 200? Like, what is like, if you just put like, what’s a low range for BMR? Let’s just pick the lowest number. Is it like 50 calories, like one?
So the body is burning, like at least 1200 calories? And that’s absolutely nothing. Right. And the thing is, I think like we see a lot of times people come to us that say like, oh, last time I tried dieting, I was on a 1200 calorie diet. And that’s why we’re like, oh my gosh, no, don’t eat that little, because we know that your BMR is that low. I’m like, for reference, like as a five, nine female, like I burned like 1600 calories a day, at minimum reps doing absolutely nothing. And BMR is only what 50 to 60% of what we’re actually going to need to eat to stay at maintenance. So I think people think that they’re not burning nearly as much as they are,
and really address how like all the different ways that we burn calories throughout the day. So yeah, let’s touch back on that. So BMR is 60% then we have what is called your neat though non exercise activity, thermogenesis so essentially things that we are doing at this very moment having a conversation is going to expend some energy or when you park your car in the parking lot and walk into the store. You walking into the store is like subconsciously going to be some energy expended. So there’s really four ways we burn calories. Right? So BMR ni, like your subconscious, like energy expenditure. And then we have going into the gym, right, Tim so go into the gym. We don’t have the intent always to just burn calories, you want to try to like perform well, and things like that. But that’s like going in the gym with a purpose of exercise, exercise. And then maybe Sam, you can talk a little bit about thermic TGF thermic effect of food. So what happens when we eat our food like me? Yeah, I’ll just let you Yeah,
yeah, so I’m not going to go into like the whole Krebs cycle right now. But basically, when you eat food, it actually takes your body a ton of energy to digest it. And like to get food traveling from your mouth, all the way through your digestive tract and out your body like three, four hours later. Um, so it’s not like that just happens, right? It’s not like a passive activity going on the body. The body is like working to like move the food down the esophagus and then digested in the stomach, and then turn it through the intestines. So we’re actually burning calories by eating. And I feel like a lot of times people will talk about like, oh, celery is like a negative calorie food. And that’s really why it’s because like the thermic effect of food coming from something like celery is relatively high, it takes the body a while to digest those like high fiber foods,
right? In different foods, you’re going to impact your T TF differently. carbohydrates, that protein are what make up your calories. So there is going to impact your G. So now this is like also a good segue is if someone is eating basically how I describe, that’s a relatively low fat, low carb, like, Yay, Greg. All right, there’s a greater impact on thermic effect of food, that you’re burning even more calories having a higher protein diet. But having everything else super low is just gonna offset you feeling like you’re very depleted throughout the day, like your energy is gonna feel very low. So this is why we want to like look at things as content, we don’t want to just say okay, protein is great, everything else sucks. avoid at all costs, because everything has a purpose in the body. Um, your food selections are going to also impact how much you’re taking in but also how much energy that you’re expending. Now, how does that impact if our goal is that we want to build muscle Sam?
Yeah, so like you said, the the example meal that you gave that’s like protein shake protein at lunch protein at dinner and not a whole lot else is like, obviously protein is really high there. And that’s excellent for muscle building, right? Like we need amino acids from protein to rebuild muscles in the body. That’s great. However, we also need fats and carbohydrates to make that process happen as well. As the body is depleted in either of those two, if you don’t have that nice balance of macronutrients, then you just don’t recover as well. carbs and fats are important in terms of recovery. And so yes, you need those amino acids to make the muscles grow. But that doesn’t mean it’s the end all be all of everything. Um, john, do you want to talk about like, what you would feel if you’re eating too low carb or too low fat?
Um, well, if you’re eating a lower carb and a lower fat diet, you’re just going to be overall having a very low calorie diet. And like we talked about earlier, your body’s pretty smart and gets a call it famine is when you’re not getting calories regularly. So your body is very smart. This is the analogy that I like to use is essentially you start to turn your body into a Prius. So Lynette priuses, which I’m sure you all do, a Prius is a fully electric car. So a Prius is very efficient at going a very, very, very long time without needing to fill the tank. Why is this not a good thing when it comes to our body is that you can think of the Prius is like a metabolism that is starting to slow down because it’s not getting fed often enough. That doesn’t mean that you can go the other spectrum where you can go and overflow your tank, because that’s not a good thing either. But if we are not regularly eating enough calories, especially for what our goal is, then we are going to spend less energy over time. So now if we get into a situation where we do capture a lot of calories, like we go to a barbecue, and we haven’t eaten all week, and then we go into like a little bit of like a binge eating session. So much easier for your body to store calories, because of the patterns that it started to notice is that you’re not eating so your metabolism starts to adjust. It’s called metabolic adaptation, your body adjust to that caloric intake. And now it’s easier to go ahead and capture a lot of calories. But that doesn’t mean that it’s going to translate over into Okay, my goal is that I wanted to gain more muscle if you’re not fueling yourself during the week, especially like after your training sessions and having enough carbohydrates in your diet to replenish your glycogen, which is stored carbohydrates in your muscle, which is going to help you push harder in the gym, you’re going to put on extra body fat than you intended on. And it’s not a permanent damage type of thing. It doesn’t mean you like your metabolism is completely broken. It means that we need to start slowly eating more calories to get your body to essentially trust you again. Does that sound accurate, Tim?
Yeah, definitely. Um, I think it’s worth mentioning and it’s something that we had touched on yesterday prior to talking about this but starvation mode, and like what you’re saying is like the the buzzword starvation mode. So john, do you want to like differentiate between like, what starvation mode is thought of and what starvation mode actually is?
Just starvation mode is like a myth of if you eat too little that your body starts to store fat as a um, so starvation mode is like if you were actually starving, you wouldn’t store fat you would actually just be totally depleted. you’ve ever watched the show survivor, I started watching Oh, God, I think I’ve watched like six seasons in a row. But anyways, I Overwatch survivor, these guys are on an island and they don’t eat for like 39 days, they’re probably having like, like 600 to 800 calories. At the end of the 39 days, like they lose like, anywhere from like seven to 10% of their body fat. So starvation was a real thing, then all those people would end up leaving the show have gained weight. But what happens and you’ll see on the reunion episode is that a lot of them put on a lot of weight because as soon as they get home, their hormones are out of whack and they’re going to be eating more calories because they’ve been so deprived for such a long time. And their metabolism has adapted to such a low amount of caloric intake. They store a lot of weight much easier. So it’s like your, your, your thyroid gets out of whack your your leptin and ghrelin hormone so ghrelin dictates like how hungry you feel leptin dictates how full you feel after a meal. Those aren’t really your body’s not getting the right signals anymore. Because your body got into a state of essentially being worried that you weren’t going to be feeding it, and now that you’re back to feeding itself, it’s not a good thing. But anyways, I kind of went on a little bit of a rail on like how that would happen in reality, but starvation mode is more of what’s going to happen if you don’t go ahead and feed yourself regularly is that you’re most likely uncertain at some point, you are going to over eat, and it is much easier to overeat and a large excess. So if your goal is weight loss, and you’re eating too little, so let’s say you’re eating 1200 calories during the week, and then you go out with your friends. And you’re like a situation where you’re able to relieve stress, and have a good time and you have all this food and alcohol available, you’re probably going to also offset that calorie deficit because you’re gonna eat like 3000 calories, and just like hanging out with your friends. And then you’re gonna be like, Oh, well, I am, you know, there’s something wrong with my metabolism, when really, it’s some of the patterns that you’re having. And yeah, you probably are starting to have a little bit of that pattern of, you’re under reading, and then you’re overeating. So we want to fix that and kind of try to be more regular during the week, as well as the weekends. Not saying that if you have one meal that you eat a little bit more, but not having like these huge like differentiators of, you know, one day’s 1200. And then Friday, it’s 3500. That’s, that’s usually a pattern of, you know, what they call like binge eating because of being overly deprived.
Yeah, no, that makes complete sense. You mentioned leptin and ghrelin. And so I didn’t know if you want to maybe dive into that a little bit more, give some scientific background and what’s actually going on, because I think hormones are something that’s maybe misunderstood, and that maybe our listeners don’t know a ton about it. So it might be nice to add a little science knowledge to this.
Yeah. So when you when you eat a meal, and you’re done eating, you should feel satisfied if you’ve eaten an adequate amount of calories. If you are in a deficit for too long of a time, or the deficits too severe. I mean, I guess this is the easiest way to explain something that is complicated is leptin, and ghrelin are like financial advisors in your life. If you’re spending too much money, they’re going to tell you that you need to start saving more money. So your hormones are gonna say you’re not hungry anymore. Stop eating. Financial Advisors always gonna say, hey, you’re saving, saving, saving, saving, saving. You have all this money, why don’t we invest it and not be so conservative. So it’s going to say, if we’re not going to apply this to our body, eat, eat, spend some money, because we don’t need to save this much. And if you were to go ahead and not spend any money, and then you were to go ahead and buy a Ferrari, that wouldn’t be the best idea because it’s something we still can’t afford. Right? So we, it’s kind of like that, you know, that, like, advisor in our in our body saying whether or not you know how much we should eat or not. And if we don’t listen to that advisor, or that advisor starts telling us when we should stop spending money or start saving money, we run into issues. Essentially, that is like the easiest way to explain a complex hormone. An analogy that’s maybe a little easier understand.
I love analogies today. These are good. Um, most of my clients have heard me talk about hunger cues. And that’s exactly what I’m talking about is the leptin and ghrelin signaling the body like ghrelin saying, Yes, I’m hungry leptin saying like, nope, time to stop. I’m not actually hungry anymore. And I think a lot of people sometimes don’t listen to the hunger cues. We like no longer feel it and like it might be a result of just completely ignoring what the body’s telling you. It might be a result of just changes in the release of leptin and ghrelin because you’ve been eating too little. So your body’s not feeling that anymore. Your body’s just always hungry. And if you’re someone who’s always feeling hungry, there’s probably a reason like our hormones work that way for a reason. If you’re always feeling hungry, if you’re feeling tired or fatigued, if you feel like a month ago, you could lift more weight in this week, like things are just not going. It’s probably tied to your hunger hormones. It’s probably tied to potentially eating too little. Um, john, do you Can you think of any other signs that someone would like know that they’re eating too little?
If, if you’re someone that’s struggling With eating in the morning, that might be a little bit of a sign that so well hormones Sam just talked about. If you are, if you wake up and you don’t typically feel hungry for breakfast, it’s probably because you don’t normally eat breakfast. So again, like your body kind of like get signals in adjust to that signal wouldn’t make sense for your body to make you feel hungry in the morning, if it doesn’t expect you to eat calories. So you might be more hungry later in the evening. Right, where then we struggle with late night snacking and things like that. And this is why like things like, our environment, and things like that matter so much is that, um, if you’re not eating breakfast, and then you have a salad with chicken or whatever, I only have 400 calories, and you’re very busy with work. You know, that’s not only just associated with poor planning, but you know, you’re putting yourself in a situation where you’re most likely going to really struggle with having cravings for highly palatable foods, because your body learns from what you eat of this bag of potato chips is great, this is a really easy source of calories that we can take right now. If we just make them crave that maybe they’ll eat and feed us. And you will because it’s really hard to fight that craving. So we have to learn over time how to be able to implement some of those foods into our diet where it doesn’t become a trigger food or you know, something that is hard to really like control, I guess?
Yeah. Um, so I’m thinking maybe we should go through like a sample day of like ways to fuel that are balanced. By like, if someone’s listening to this, and they’re like, Oh, my gosh, I think I’m doing that I think I’m under eating. Like, maybe we can we can talk through like a way to eat. That would make sense. Obviously, every single person needs a different amount of calories. Every single person needs a different amount of nutrients. And definitely a different division of macros. But for the general public, let’s talk for a normal day.
Yeah, so I just just before we even go into there, just like if you have been like severely under eating, and you just go right to eating like, what, maybe me or Sam eats, that’s really hard to do. And you may feel really uncomfortable. So we want to just preference that if you’re trying to add more calories into your diet, because you know that some of those things that we just described sound accurate, where you’re under reading, you should work with a coach, and you should do these things slowly. If anything, if you’re not going to work with a coach, you should go ahead and do these things slowly, you shouldn’t just go ahead and just add in 600 700 800 calories. overnight. Yes, you just started by adding like a banana, like, you know, after you work out when you’re not used to having anything for another two hours after that. And that’s normally your first meal. Even if you just started out in that one thing, you can just start to at least get your body to form some pattern that you’ll probably start to feel hungrier at that time of day than you previously would. And that’d be a good sign is that if you start to feel hungry at a time of day when you normally didn’t feel hungry, okay? Anyways, I just want to make that like clear just so people aren’t like, cool, I’m just going to go ahead, I’m just going to add in like 800 calories. And they’re like, you guys don’t know you’re talking about I just gained like 10 pounds in three weeks. So that’s
super dangerous. refeeding syndrome is a real thing. And if you don’t know anything about that, maybe we can talk about that one week. But yes, take it slow. And like what john and i are about to say like is not necessarily put well for everyone, right? Like, I am not a big proponent of being like, this is what I eat in a day. Because what I eat in a day is not what anyone else should eat in a day. Like, this is what works for me. And you eat john what works for you. And it’s like no two people are alike. Um, but this is like a good guideline of like, if you’re like, I don’t know where to start. This, this is a good place to get to mentioning like how many calories
you’d have at a certain time of day, or it’s going to give you guys some maybe like, like eating pattern maybe that might be so I typically work out at five in the morning. We’ll work at like seven in the morning, someone else might work out at 530 at night, we could just get into pattern of trying to fuel ourselves around our workout. Some of us don’t have a lot of time in the morning, if you’re working out five in the morning, you know, you may not have as much time to go ahead and eat then or have like a super big appetite in the morning just strictly because maybe you even eat later at night because you have young kids and that’s the opportunity to eat so your meals are closer together. That doesn’t mean you have like anything wrong with your metabolism. If you’re Not hungry, like super early in the morning just means that could be your schedule, but just having something after your workout, like some protein, some carbohydrates, so after we work out, your body stores glycogen in your muscles, right? So glycogen is stored carbohydrates, after you work out would be a great time to have some carbohydrates for the purpose of being able to fuel yourself for your next workout. So having some carbohydrates and some protein are great for not only muscle building, but even just maintaining a good steady energy in the gym. Because when you do a workout, you’re probably gonna have some blood sugar. Ups and ups and downs. Right? So you’d want to Barb’s for that purpose as well. Um, so before and after you workout, depending on what time of day, if you’re working out at night, you might just have dinner afterwards, but just having like, some form of a schedule like that, um, would you say, Sam, that just being consistent with when you have your eating your eat time, eating schedule, is really important for just just forming a basic systems, then there’s not this like, picking up things throughout the day, or doing like little things where we skip a meal. And all we did was have like a handful of like, like, crackers, and then we realized we haven’t eaten for five hours. So would you say that even just getting into like a schedule is probably a good idea.
Yeah, I think that works for a lot of people. We’re big proponents of habit building. Like if you do something and you repeat it, it just becomes second nature. So if you’re someone who’s like, not used to eating regular meals, and like john said, you’re just grabbing a handful of crackers, and you’re, you’re still hungry, like setting aside a time for like a week straight to like, make a lunch and eat a lunch. It doesn’t even have to be anything fancy. Like it can be a sandwich, it can take you three seconds to put together. And just like having that routine every single day. And that becomes a new habit, and it’s a lot easier to make sure that you’re properly feeling.
Right. Um, so does it does it matter? So let’s say that I have a really busy schedule, and it’s really hard for me in the middle of the day to sit down and have a lunch, would you say that some strategies would be some time snacks and things bought at a consistent time of day, it would be a good idea to try to like maybe break up that one meal into three smaller meals where we can still accumulate some calories in a more convenient way.
Yeah, that’s a great idea. So if you workout in the morning, you can have your pre workout snack and post workout snack. Great. And then if you like really can’t eat a big meal again until like two in the afternoon. Because for whatever reason your schedule doesn’t work like that. Well, that’s okay. Like you can have your lunch split up into like a protein bar, and a piece of fruit, and maybe some crackers and cheese. But little like snack items spread throughout the day just to like kind of keep the hunger at bay, keep your blood sugar sugars regulated and make sure that like you’re still getting nutrition and even if you don’t have a ton of time to make it happen.
Yeah, and there’s a lot of variables to that probably also dictate whether or not we’re eating enough is how much water intake we’re getting, how much sleep we’re getting, if there’s there’s a lot of, there’s a lot of research on the impacts of being dehydrated and sleep deprived on your appetite. So if those things aren’t something that you prioritize, I would prioritize those as well. Because that also helps you get a better sense of what your body’s telling you. Because if those things are, you know, if you’re feeling hungry, when you’re thirsty, or if you’re feeling hungry, when you’re tired, then those are things that, you know, we want to try to prioritize as best as we can. So we can have a better understanding of our true hunger signals and things along the lines of that. Um, so if we were to structure a meal, what’s like, what’s a basic way to structure a solid meal that we can assume that we’re going to get at least 400 to 600 calories?
Yeah, so pretty much every meal is going to be split up just like they show the kids in school. It’s like half the plate is vegetables or fruit. A quarter of the plate is some kind of grain or carb and then another quarter of the plate is protein with that included in there. Obviously like the amount varies, but if you’re getting that kind of balance, then you’re getting all the major macronutrients and also the my my micronutrients as well. And some people need more protein. Some people will need more carbs for most of the people at the gym, working out on a regular basis like yes, you do need more carbs and more protein than what like the typical My Plate shows, um, but making sure that every meal or like opportunity that you have to eat, you are getting a bit of protein, you are getting a bit of carbs and you are getting a bit of fat, like a chicken breast on his own is like not really a sufficient meal. Yes, it’s full of protein. But like we said, we’re missing carbs and fat. And then that means that you’re depleted. And that leads to a lot of other issues in terms of satiety, and hunger levels and ability to reach your goal. So if you’re going to have a chicken with some salad, we also need to make sure that it’s including dressing and that there’s some form of carbohydrate, maybe you put protons on maybe you sprinkle Qianlong inside, maybe you have like a slice of toast on the side of it as well. And so that way, you’re getting all your micronutrients, in addition to the major macronutrients in a meal. Right.
And that’s probably another reason why at times, like if we look at, we don’t put like moral values on food. Sometimes having something that’s not going to be as filling could be more beneficial, especially if you haven’t, you know, your previous meal you didn’t get enough calories in so you had a 400 calorie breakfast, lunch and dinner, that’s 1200 calories for the day. So having, you know, the couple snacks in there that would help you get another 150 to 200 calories. And again, these are just random numbers, because I’m for a guy, it could be totally different for small female, it could be that could be too much food. I don’t I don’t know people’s natural, you know, there are many amount of food that every single person needs. So if you aren’t eating, if you’re just eating like very filling foods and your meals, because there’s super nutritious like, don’t be afraid to have things that aren’t going to be as filling like having like some white rice sometimes or having like a piece of bread with like a little bit of peanut butter, if that is something that makes sense in that context of that day. So I think we talked a lot about a lot of different things Sam’s that you want to add that maybe we didn’t touch upon, or
I think we went over a lot. I feel like it was information overload and we might have gone off on some tangents. Yeah. Is there anything, john that you think we’re missing? Or that you want to like, say to bring everything back together?
Yeah, if you haven’t watched survivor season 20. That’s really good. It’s a really good one.
Don’t start with 20. It’s the worst one to start with. They brought all the people back.
Yeah, you got to start sooner. But that’s a really good one. No, I don’t have anything else to add, if anyone has specific questions like this will help us with, like, knowing what to help you guys with is if you guys send us messages, or just even just talk to us in the gym. Like we want to be able to help you guys as much as we can. And these are just some confusing things as well. How can eating too little be impacting my goal of whatever? We’re here to help you. So ask questions. There’s no shame in not knowing something about nutrition. This is what we do all day long. Come on. Because I have a good chunk of my time watching survivor, obviously. We This is stuff that interests us a lot. So if there’s something that you want to learn, we want to help you on it.
Yeah, shout out to anyone who has made it this far into this podcast. And it’s still listening and still interested. And if you are still listening and you’re interested in working with us, definitely reach out. You can schedule a free nutrition consultation, just kind of see if this is a something that you might need some help with. We are here to help you and we are here to talk nutrition with all of you. So definitely reach out if you have any questions or concerns and feel free to sign up for a free nutrition console as well. Cool. All right, guys. Thank you for listening. Bye, guys.